• July 19, 2021
lifesciencesexpo

The distinct MHC-unrestricted immunobiology of innate-like and adaptive-like human

The distinct MHC-unrestricted immunobiology of innate-like and adaptive-like human γδ T cell subsets-Nature’s CAR-T cells

Distinct innate-like and adaptive-like immunobiological paradigms are rising for human γδ T cells, supported by a mixture of immunophenotypic, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, useful, and transcriptomic knowledge. Proof of the γδ TCR/ligand recognition modalities that respective human subsets make the most of is accumulating.

  1. Though many questions stay unanswered, one superantigen-like modality options interactions of germline-encoded areas of specific TCR Vγ areas with particular BTN/BTNL relations and apparently aligns with an innate-like biology, albeit with some scope for clonal amplification.
  2. A second includes CDR3-mediated γδ TCR interplay with numerous ligands and aligns with an adaptive-like biology. Importantly, these unconventional modalities present γδ T cells with distinctive recognition capabilities relative to αβ T cells, B cells, and NK cells, permitting immunosurveillance for signatures of “altered self” on course cells, through a membrane-linked γδ TCR recognizing intact non-MHC proteins on the opposing cell floor.
  3. In doing so, they enable mobile responses in numerous conditions together with the place MHC expression is compromised, or the place typical adaptive and/or NK cell-mediated immunity is suppressed.
  4. γδ T cells could subsequently make the most of their TCR like a cell-surface Fab repertoire, considerably analogous to engineered chimeric antigen receptor T cells, however moreover integrating TCR signaling with parallel alerts from different floor immunoreceptors, making them multimolecular sensors of mobile stress.

Immunobiology and immunotherapy of COVID-19: A clinically up to date overview

Extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a brand new member of the coronavirus household that may trigger coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-9 has turn into a world pandemic with extreme well being points world wide.

Figuring out the correct immunopathogenesis of the COVID-19 and the immune response in opposition to SARS-CoV-2 is important for the event of therapeutic approaches and rational drug design. This paper goals to overview the up to date scientific knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of the COVID-19 and assessment the innate and adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2.

Additionally, challenges of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 resulting in dysfunctional immune response and their contribution to the development of the illness have been mentioned. To realize a extra environment friendly immune response, a number of strategies could possibly be utilized, together with regulation of the immune response, augmentation of the immune system in opposition to the virus, inhibition of the dysfunctional immune checkpoints, and inhibition of the viral replication/an infection.

Based mostly on the immune response in opposition to SARS-CoV-2 and its dysfunction, we introduce potential immunotherapies in addition to reviewing recruiting/accomplished scientific trials of COVID-19.

lifesciencesexpo
lifesciencesexpo

Intercourse Variations in Bladder Most cancers Immunobiology and Outcomes: A Collaborative Evaluate with Implications for Remedy

Context: Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) reveals important sexual dimorphism within the incidence, etiology, and response to intravesical immunotherapy. Environmental components equivalent to tobacco use and scientific administration points equivalent to delayed presentation have extensively been related to intercourse variations in UCB outcomes. Rising findings from immune checkpoint blockade trials are suggestive of differential outcomes in females in contrast with males.

Intercourse-specific variations in the way in which immune system capabilities and responds to pathogenic insults are nicely established. As such, an in-depth understanding of the genetic and epigenetic components contributing to sex-associated variations in response to immunomodulatory therapies is required urgently for improved administration of UCB.

Goal: To assessment the associations between affected person intercourse and scientific outcomes, with a concentrate on the incidence, host intrinsic options, and response to therapies in UCB.

Proof acquisition: Utilizing the PubMed database, this narrative assessment evaluates printed findings from mouse model-based and scientific cohort research to establish components related to intercourse and scientific outcomes in bladder most cancers.

A scoping assessment of the important thing findings on epidemiology, genetic, hormonal, immune physiology, and scientific outcomes was carried out to discover potential components that might have implications in immunomodulatory remedy design.

Proof synthesis: Intercourse-associated variations in UCB incidence and scientific outcomes are influenced by intercourse hormones, native bladder resident immune populations, tumor genetics, and bladder microbiome.

Within the context of therapeutic outcomes, intercourse variations are outstanding in response to bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy used within the therapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder most cancers. Equally, with respect to tumor molecular profiles in muscle-invasive bladder most cancers, tumors from females present enrichment of the basal subtype.

Conclusions: Amongst proposed tumor/host intrinsic components which will affect response to immune-based therapies, affected person intercourse stays a difficult consideration that deserves additional consideration. Proof thus far helps a multifactorial origin of sexual dimorphism within the incidence and outcomes of UCB.

Affected person abstract: On this assessment, we spotlight the sex-associated host and tumor intrinsic options which will doubtlessly drive differential illness development and therapeutic response in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

Key phrases: BCG; Bladder most cancers; Immunotherapy; Microbiome; Muscle-invasive bladder most cancers; Non–muscle-invasive bladder most cancers; Intercourse chromosome; Sexual dimorphism.

 

Peroxide assay, colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

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Peroxidase assay, colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1360-PAS-1 1 kit
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Acid Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K411-500 each
EUR 430.8

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2075-500 500 assays
EUR 652.8

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K412-500 each
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Phosphatidylcholine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K576-100 each
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Phosphatidylcholine Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2086-100 100 assays
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Glutathione (GSH) Assay, Enzymatic colorimetric assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1250-GSH-1 1 kit
EUR 489.6

Glucose colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1380-GLC-1 1 kit
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StemTAG Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Assay Kit, Colorimetric

CBA-301 100 assays
EUR 483.6
Description: Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) is a widely used marker for both mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ES) and embryonic germ cells (EG). Our StemTAG Alkaline Phosphatase kits provide an efficient system for monitoring cell differentiation or undifferentiation using the AP marker. The StemTAG Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Assay Kits provide reagents for quantifying alkaline phosphatase activity in a convenient 96-well plate format, with either colorimetric or fluorescence detection.

Hemoglobin colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1540-HEM-1 1 kit
EUR 343.2

Cholesterol colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1390-CHL-1 1 kit
EUR 634.8

Amplite® Colorimetric Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit *Yellow Color*

11950 500 Tests
EUR 166

Triglyceride colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1550-TGL-1 1 kit
EUR 343.2

Amplite® Colorimetric Alkaline Phosphatase Assay Kit *Yellow Color*

11950-500Tests 500 Tests
EUR 166
Description: Alkaline phosphatase is a highly sensitive enzyme for ELISA, immuno-histochemical, Northern, Southern and Western blot applications.

Genorise® Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

GR107015 100 tests
EUR 289

Glutathione Peroxidase Assay (GPX), Enzymatic colorimetric assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1240-GPX-1 1 kit
EUR 708

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) enzyme assay, colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1290-NOS-1 1 kit
EUR 781.2

StemTAG Alkaline Phosphatase Staining and Activity Assay Kit, Colorimetric

CBA-302 2 x 100 assays
EUR 769.2
Description: Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) is a widely used marker for both mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ES) and embryonic germ cells (EG). Our StemTAG Alkaline Phosphatase kits provide an efficient system for monitoring cell differentiation or undifferentiation using the AP marker. The StemTAG Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Assay Combo Kits provide reagents for monitoring alkaline phosphatase activity via immunocytochemistry staining as well as in a 96-well plate with either colorimetric or fluorescence detection.

PhosphoWorksâ„¢ Colorimetric ATP Assay Kit

21617-100Tests 100 Tests
EUR 446
Description: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays a fundamental role in cellular energetics, metabolic regulation and cellular signaling.

Ketone Body Enzymatic colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1260-KTN-1 1 kit
EUR 489.6

Phosphoglucomutase Colorimetric Assay Kit

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PhosphoWorks™ Colorimetric ATP Assay Kit

21617 100 Tests
EUR 446

Glycogen Phosphorylase Colorimetric Assay Kit

K179-100 each
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Phospholipid Assay Kit (Colorimetric/Fluorometric)

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EUR 660

Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1370-TAS-1 1 kit
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Nitric Oxide (NO/nitrate/nitrite) colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1280-NOX-1 1 kit
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Phospholipase D (PLD) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K725-100 each
EUR 548.4

6-Phosphogluconic Acid (6-PGA) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K217-100 each
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Phosphoglycerate Kinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K194-100 each
EUR 639.6

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K776-100 each
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Glucose-6-Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K657-100 each
EUR 614.4

Glucose-1-Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K697-100 each
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Glucose-6-Phosphate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2208-100 100 assays
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Phosphoglucose Isomerase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K775-100 each
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2-Phosphoglycerate Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

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Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K768-100 each
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Glycerol-3-Phosphate (G3P) Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5075 100 assays
EUR 567.6

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K443-100 each
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Glycerol-3-Phosphate (G3P) Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) colorimetric micro assay kit, 96 test, Quantitative

1270-TBA-1 1 kit
EUR 489.6

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K359-100 each
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Direct Total Iron colorimetric assay (Serum etc), 480 tests/kit

1230-5 1 kit
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6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K569-100 each
EUR 732

EpiQuik Global Histone H3 Phosphorylation (Ser10) Assay Kit (Colorimetric) 

P-7002
  • EUR 945.66
  • EUR 347.60
  • EUR 625.90
  • 96 Assays
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EpiQuik Global Histone H3 Phosphorylation (Ser28) Assay Kit (Colorimetric) 

P-7004
  • EUR 945.66
  • EUR 347.60
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  • 96 Assays
  • 48 Assays
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Amplite® Colorimetric Glucose-6-Phosphate Assay Kit

13805 200 Tests
EUR 334

Amplite® Colorimetric Glucose-6-Phosphate Assay Kit

13805-200Tests 200 Tests
EUR 334
Description: Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a key intermediate for glucose transport into cells.

Zinc Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5138 100 assays
EUR 410

Colorimetric DTT Assay kit

DTT100C 100 assays
EUR 221.78
Description: This product includes 1 ml of 10x Assay buffer, 0.2 ml of 10 x Reagent A, 0.2 ml of 10 x Reagent B and 0.5 ml of 10x Reagent C.

AMP Colorimetric Assay Kit

K229-100 each
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Heme Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Urea Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Zinc Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Heme Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Iron Colorimetric Assay Kit

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Iron Colorimetric Assay Kit

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HDAC colorimetric assay kit

TBS2065 100 tests
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Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5025 100 assays
EUR 574.8
Description: Our Starch Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures starch in food samples. First, starch is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Colorimetric Probe and is detected with a spectrophotometric plate reader at 540-570nm. Starch levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided starch standard curve.

Sodium Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K391-100 each
EUR 927.6

Malate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5119 200 assays
EUR 395

Lysine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5130 100 assays
EUR 525

PTP1B Colorimetric Assay Kit

30019 96 rxns.
EUR 425
Description: Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational_x000D_modification processes. Phosphorylation is reversibly regulated by Protein Kinases (PKs) and_x000D_Protein Phosphatases (PTPs). PTP1B (PTPN1) is known to catalyze dephosphorylation of_x000D_insulin receptor kinases and plays a critical role in insulin signaling. The PTP1B Colorimetric_x000D_Assay Kit is designed to measure PTP1B activity for screening and profiling applications, in a_x000D_homogeneous assay with no time-consuming washing steps. The PTP1B Colorimetric Assay Kit is optimized for both_x000D_continuous and end-point assay formats.

PARP1 Colorimetric Assay Kit

80580 96 rxns.
EUR 640
Description: The PARP1 Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit is designed to measure PARP1_x000D_activity for screening and profiling applications. PARP1 is known to catalyze the NAD-dependent_x000D_addition of poly(ADP-ribose) to histones. The key to the PARP1 Colorimetric Activity_x000D_Assay is the biotinylated substrate. With this kit, only three simple steps are required for PARP1_x000D_reactions. First, histone proteins are coated on a 96-well plate. Next, the PARP1 biotinylated_x000D_substrate is incubated with an assay buffer that contains the PARP1 enzyme. Finally, the plate_x000D_is treated with streptavidin-HRP followed by addition of the colorimetric HRP substrate to_x000D_produce color that can then be measured using a UV/Vis spectrophotometer microplate reader.

PARP2 Colorimetric Assay Kit

80581 96 rxns.
EUR 875
Description: The PARP2 Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit is designed to measure PARP2_x000D_activity for screening and profiling applications. PARP2 is known to catalyze the NAD-dependent_x000D_addition of poly(ADP-ribose) to histones. The key to the PARP2 Colorimetric Activity_x000D_Assay is the biotinylated substrate. With this kit, only three simple steps are required for PARP2_x000D_reactions. First, histone proteins are coated on a 96-well plate. Next, the PARP2 biotinylated_x000D_substrate is incubated with an assay buffer that contains the PARP2 enzyme. Finally, the plate_x000D_is treated with streptavidin-HRP followed by addition of the colorimetric HRP substrate to_x000D_produce color that can then be measured using a UV/Vis spectrophotometer microplate reader.

Taurine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K988-100 each
EUR 777.6

Lithium Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K545-100 each
EUR 744

Lactate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5012 100 assays
EUR 540
Description: Our Lactate Assay Kit measures L-lactate in biological samples. Lactate is first oxidized by lactate oxidase, yielding pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide released from this reaction is specifically detected by either a colorimetric or fluorometric probe in a 1:1 ratio. Lactate levels in unknown samples are determined based on a lactate standard curve.

Choline Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5043 96 assays
EUR 567.6
Description: Cell Biolabs? Choline Assay Kits are simple assays that measure the amount of choline present in a variety of sample types in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format.  Each kit provides sufficient reagents to perform up to 96 assays, including blanks, acetylcholine standards and samples.  Sample choline concentrations are determined by comparison with a known choline standard and measured on a colorimetric plate reader.

Formate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5133 100 assays
EUR 475

Guanine Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5147 100 assays
EUR 430

Alcohol Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-620 100 assays
EUR 622.8
Description: Cell Biolabs? Alcohol Assay Kits measure primary alcohols by an enzymatic, oxidation reaction, producing hydrogen peroxide which reacts with the kit?s probe. These assay kits come in either colorimetric or fluorometric. The colorimetric assay has a detection sensitivity limit of ~30 µM (0.0001 % w/v) and the fluorometric has a detection sensitivity limit of ~15 µM (0.00007 % w/v). They can detect various primary alcohols and are not ethanol specific.

Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

STA-680 500 assays
EUR 644.4
Description: The Glucose Assay Kit (Colorimetric) measures total glucose present in food or biological samples. Glucose Oxidase first oxidizes glucose, generating hydrogen peroxide that is detected by a colorimetric probe.

Malate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K637-100 each
EUR 588

Cobalt Colorimetric Assay Kit

K505-100 each
EUR 548.4

Nickel Colorimetric Assay Kit

K510-100 each
EUR 548.4

Malate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2139-100 100 assays
EUR 602.4

ADP Colorimetric Assay Kit II

K356-100 each
EUR 686.4

Methanol Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K898-100 each
EUR 796.8

Glycogen Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5022 100 assays
EUR 574.8
Description: Our Glycogen Assay Kit (Fluorometric) measures glycogen in serum, plasma, urine, lysates, and cell culture supernatants. First, glycogen is broken down into glucose monomers by amyloglucosidase. Glucose is then oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing D-gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide reacts specifically with the kit?s Fluorometric Probe and is detected at ex. 530-570 nm/em. 590-600 nm. Glycogen levels in unknown samples are determined based on the provided glycogen standard curve.

Fructose Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K439-100 each
EUR 601.2

Pyruvate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

MET-5125 100 assays
EUR 410

Formate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K653-100 each
EUR 698.4

Acetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K658-100 each
EUR 614.4

Calcium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K380-250 each
EUR 516

Acetate Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2209-100 100 assays
EUR 634.8

Calcium Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2067-250 250 assays
EUR 518.4

Ammonia Colorimetric Assay Kit

K370-100 each
EUR 646.8

Ethanol Colorimetric Assay kit

TBS2090 100 tests
EUR 259

The immunobiology of humanized Anti-IL6 receptor antibody: From fundamental analysis to breakthrough medication

The scientific use of monoclonal antibodies is nicely established in human medication and has been amongst crucial contributions of fundamental science to scientific illness. One such antibody, the humanized anti-human IL-6 receptor antibody, is used to deal with a wide range of autoimmune illnesses, notably rheumatoid arthritis.

  • This can be very troublesome and a laborious course of to go from an idea on the analysis bench, to authorities approval. Such approval implies not solely efficacy however, extra importantly, an acceptable security profile.
  • On this assessment, the historical past of anti-human IL-6 receptor antibody is mentioned in depth starting with the writer’s expertise throughout a sabbatical go to on the College of California at Davis in 1978.
  • At the moment, it was found that B cell activation was a minimum of one important issue within the growth of autoimmunity. Roughly six years later, the cDNA encoding for IL-6 was cloned as BSF-2 (B cell stimulatory issue 2) to distinguish B cells to provide antibody.
  • Quickly after, it was urged that this cytokine performs an vital function within the growth of autoimmune illnesses. Based mostly on this proof, the journey started to seek for an IL-6 inhibitor.
  • Though there have been quite a few obstacles to find lead compounds, in the end, fundamental science developed the methodology for prime throughput readouts that may inhibit the biologic operate of IL-6.
  • It was lastly concluded {that a} mouse monoclonal antibody in opposition to IL-6 receptor could be optimum. In 1991, this antibody was humanized by utilizing CDR-grafting expertise in collaboration with the MRC (Medical Analysis Council).
  • The drug was named tocilizumab and launched as an revolutionary anti-rheumatic drug in 2008 in Japan. Subsequently, the drug has been used all through the world and has achieved monumental success in serving to sufferers who are suffering from inflammatory arthropathies.
  • The teachings discovered within the growth of this antibody have software to the examine of biologics and their software to different human illnesses.

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